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Diet, Health, Fitness, Lifestyle & Wellness


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Child And Teen Obesity Soars Tenfold Worldwide In 40 Years: WHO Report

GENEVA (Reuters) – The number of obese children and adolescents worldwide has jumped tenfold in the past 40 years and the rise is accelerating in low- and middle-income countries, especially in Asia, a major study said on Wednesday.

Childhood and teen obesity rates have leveled off in the United States, north-western Europe and other rich countries, but remain “unacceptably high” there, researchers at Imperial College London and the World Health Organization (WHO) said.

“Over 40 years we have gone from about 11 million to a more than tenfold increase to over 120 million obese children and adolescents throughout the world,” lead author Majid Ezzati of Imperial’s School of Public Health, told a news conference.

This means that nearly 8 percent of boys and nearly 6 percent of girls worldwide were obese in 2016, against less than one percent for both sexes in 1975.

An additional 213 million children aged 5-19 were overweight last year, but fell below the threshold for obesity, according to the largest ever study, based on height and weight measurements of 129 million people.

The researchers called for better nutrition at home and at school, and more physical exercise to prevent a generation from becoming adults at greater risk of diabetes, heart disease and cancers due to excessive weight.

Clear food labels on salt, sugar and fat content are needed to help consumers make “healthy choices”, the study said.

Taxation and tough restrictions on marketing of junk food should be considered, it said. WHO has already recommended a 20 percent tax on sugary drinks to reduce consumption.

RAPID TRANSITION

South Africa, Egypt and Mexico which had “very low levels of obesity four decades ago” now have among the high rates of obesity in girls, between 20-25 percent, Ezzati said.

“The experience of east Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean show that the transition from underweight to overweight and obesity can be rapid,” the study said.

If current trends continue, in 2022 there will be more obese children and teenagers worldwide than underweight ones, who now number 192 million, half of them in India, the study said.

Polynesia and Micronesia had the highest rates of child obesity last year, 25.4 percent in girls and 22.4 percent in boys, followed by “the high-income English-speaking region” that includes the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland and Britain.

Among high-income countries, the United States had “the highest obesity rates for girls and boys”, 19.5 percent and 23.3 percent, respectively.

“Children are not getting physical activity in the school days, there is poor food opportunities in many schools, walking and cycling to school is going down in many countries, unsafe in many other countries, and parents are not being given the right, sufficient advice on nutrition,” said Fiona Bull of WHO’s department of non-communicable diseases.
“It’s the changing environments, food, behaviors, portions, consumption patterns have completely changed over the last 40 years. Highly processed food is more available, more marketed and it’s cheaper,” she said.

 

Reporting by Stephanie Nebehay Editing by Jeremy Gaunt     OCTOBER 10, 2017 
source: reuters.com
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40% Of Cancers Diagnosed In U.S. Related To Obesity, CDC Says

Add cancer to the many good reasons to strive for a healthy weight

The rates of 12 obesity-related  cancers rose by 7 per cent from 2005 to 2014, an increase that is threatening to reverse progress in reducing the rate of cancer in the United States, U.S. health officials say.

According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 630,000 people in the United States were diagnosed with a cancer linked with being overweight or obese in 2014.

Obesity-related cancers accounted for about 40 per cent of all cancers diagnosed in the United States in 2014. Although the overall rate of new cancer diagnoses has fallen since the 1990s,  rates of obesity-related cancers have been rising.

“Today’s report shows in some cancers we’re going in the wrong direction,” Dr. Anne Schuchat of the CDC said on a conference call with reporters.

According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, 13 cancers are associated with overweight and obesity.
They include:

  • Meningioma.
  • Multiple myeloma.
  • Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus.
  • Cancers of the thyroid, postmenopausal breast, gallbladder, stomach, liver, pancreas, kidney, ovaries, uterus and colon and rectum (colorectal).

In 2013-2014, about two out of three U.S. adults were considered overweight or obese. CDC researchers used the U.S. cancer statistics database to see how obesity was affecting cancer rates. Although cancer rates rose in 12 of these cancers from 2005 to 2012, colorectal cancer rates fell by 23 per cent, helped by increases in screening, which prevents new cases by finding growths before they turn into cancer.

Cancers not associated with overweight and obesity fell by 13 per cent.

About half of Americans are not aware of this link, according to Schuchat. The findings suggest that U.S. healthcare providers need to make clear to patients the link between obesity and cancer, and encourage patients to achieve a healthy weight.

“The trends we are reporting today are concerning,” Schuchat said. “There are many good reasons to strive for a healthy weight. Now you can add cancer to the list.”

She said the science linking cancer to obesity is still evolving, and it is not yet clear whether losing weight will help individuals once cancer has taken root.

What is clear is that obesity can raise an individual’s risk of cancer, and that risk may be reduced by maintaining a healthy weight, Schuchat said Tuesday.

Oct 04, 2017
source: www.cbc.ca   Reuters


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Portion Size Versus Serving Size

Sometimes the portion size and serving size are the same, but sometimes they are not. Over the past few years portions have grown significantly in restaurants, as has the frequency of Americans eating out. Learn how much to put on your plate to help control how much you eat.

Big portion sizes can mean you’re getting more food than your body can stomach to maintain a healthy weight.

Do you know how much you’re really eating? Sometimes it’s hard to tell if the portions we are eating are the right serving size for our nutritional needs.  Portion sizes have increased drastically over the years, contributing to the rising obesity rate.

So how did it get this way?

Consider these statistics from the American Heart Association and the Robert Woods Johnson Foundation study “A Nation at Risk: Obesity in the United States”:

  1. Adults today consume an average of 300 more calories per day than they did in 1985.
  2. Portion sizes have grown dramatically over the last 40 years.
  3. North Americans eat out much more than they used to.

Understanding healthy portions can be hard. Here’s why:

  • Many of us don’t know what a healthy portion is.
  • Restaurants offer extras like breads, chips and other appetizers that add extra calories, sodium and fat but lack any nutritional benefit.
  • Some meals have portions that are enough for two or more people.
  • Many convenience foods and drinks are priced lower but packaged in larger sizes to sell more.
  • Clearing up the confusion.

 

Here are a couple of important definitions from the National Institutes of Health:

  • Portion is how much food you choose to eat at one time, whether in a restaurant, from a package or in your own kitchen. A portion is 100 percent under our control. Many foods that come as a single portion actually contain multiple servings.
  • Serving Size is the amount of food listed on a product’s Nutrition Facts label. So all of the nutritional values you see on the label are for the serving size the manufacturer suggests on the package.

Once we understand the difference, it’s easier to determine how much to serve and easier to teach kids the difference between the two. Learn some suggested servings from each food groups you and your kids can eat at mealtime or between meals.

How can we eat and serve smaller portions?

  1. When cooking at home: Offer the proper “serving” to each member of the family, then put the extra food away. Save leftovers for another meal.
  2. When dining out:  Skip the appetizers and split a large salad or main dish with a friend.
  3. When ordering takeout at home: Eat one slice of pizza instead of two, and order a small instead of a medium to split among the family so the pieces are smaller.
  4. Watching movies at home or at the theatre:  Don’t eat while watching TV or a movie or when you’re on the computer. It’s harder to control how much you’re eating if you don’t pay attention to what you’re putting in your mouth, and when. At the movies, share a box of popcorn, and avoid the free-refill tubs and skip the candy.
  5. At snack time: Never eat straight from the bag or box. Measure out snacks, including fruits and veggies, into appropriate portion sizes before giving them to your kids.
  6. All the time: Tracking your calories helps you monitor your weight. It helps to know what the appropriate serving size is so you can correctly estimate the calories in your portions, especially if you dine out a lot. Using a food diary can help you pay closer attention to what you’re eating, how much and how often.

You may be surprised to learn these are serving sizes:

  • 1 slice of bread
  • ½ cup rice or pasta (cooked)
  • 1 small piece of fruit (super-large apples are 2+ servings)
  • 1 wedge of melon
  • ¾ cup fruit juice
  • =1 cup milk or yogurt
  • 2 oz. cheese (about the size of a domino)
  • 2-3 oz. meat, poultry or fish (this is about the size of a deck of cards)
 March 21, 2017


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Toxic Chemical Bpa Still Common In Blood Samples: Survey

OTTAWA – Seven years after Canada declared bisphenol A, or BPA, to be toxic to human health, a national survey of chemicals in Canadians’ bodies shows more than 90 per cent of Canadians have it in their blood and the exposure may actually be getting worse, not better.

BPA is an industrial chemical used in plastics and commonly found in food and beverage containers such as cans and reusable water bottles. It has been linked to brain and behavioural issues in babies and children as well as high blood pressure and infertility in adults. Some studies even suggest early exposure to BPA may make people more prone to obesity.

Health Canada on Thursday released its fourth version of a survey monitoring the presence of toxic chemicals in blood and urine based on testing done on 5,700 Canadians across the country in 2014 and 2015.

The survey used blood and urine samples collected from people between three and 79 years old in 16 different locations in seven provinces.

The results detected the presence of BPA in the blood of 92.7 per cent of the people tested, compared with 92.2 per cent of people tested in 2011 and 2012.

In 2010, the federal government formally declared BPA to be toxic, and banned its use in baby bottles that same year.

The formal declaration was supposed to make it easier for Canada to ban the use of BPA with regulations rather than requiring time-consuming legislative amendments.

Since then, there have been voluntary reductions in the use of BPA in such products as infant formula packaging, food tins and some reusable water bottles, but Canada hasn’t formally banned its use in anything else.

BPA is an industrial chemical used in plastics and commonly found
in food and beverage containers such as cans and reusable water bottles.

While BPA is listed on Environment Canada’s list of toxic substances alongside arsenic, asbestos, lead and mercury, Health Canada also concludes that the current amount of BPA exposure Canadians get from food and beverage containers is low enough that it doesn’t pose a health risk when used in those products.

Muhannad Malas, the toxics program manager for Environmental Defence, said the biomonitoring survey results clearly show any efforts to reduce exposure to BPA thus far are not working.

“I think that sort of points to the inadequacy of the regulations we have on BPA,” said Malas. “So seven years ago BPA was banned in baby bottles after it was declared toxic, seven years later we’re not really seeing BPA levels going down and that’s because it’s continued to be used in things like cash register receipts and food cans.”

Last year Environmental Defence participated in a study with some U.S. organizations which found the presence of BPA in 81 per cent of food cans on store shelves.

Malas said equally disturbing is that the substances being used to replace BPA are not proven to be any safer than BPA.

Environmental Defence Thursday called for Canada to use the results of this report to help guide its decision on what to do about the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. In June, a parliamentary committee made 87 recommendations for improvements to the law, which is the main statute governing the use of chemicals in Canada.

Among those recommendations were to amend the act to make it the principal statute to regulate products containing toxic chemicals, give cabinet more authority to demand data and testing results on products to help assess their risk to Canadians and that the act require all products containing hazardous substances to have mandatory warning labels.

Health Minister Jane Philpott and Environment Minister Catherine McKenna need to respond to the committee recommendations by mid-October.

McKenna said Thursday the government is still studying the recommendations:

“The health and safety of Canadians is a top priority for us and we’re always looking at how we can improve and do better to make sure that we keep Canadians healthy and safe.”

The Canadian Press    Friday, August 25, 2017 
source: ctvnews.ca


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Energy Dense Foods May Increase Cancer Risk Regardless Of Obesity Status

Link between high dietary energy density in food and obesity-related cancer in normal weight individuals

Diet is believed to play a role in cancer risk. Current research shows that an estimated 30% of cancers could be prevented through nutritional modifications. While there is a proven link between obesity and certain types of cancer, less is known about how the ratio of energy to food weight, otherwise known as dietary energy density (DED), contributes to cancer risk. To find out, researchers looked at DED in the diets of post-menopausal women and discovered that consuming high DED foods was tied to a 10% increase in obesity-related cancer among normal weight women. Their findings are published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

DED is a measure of food quality and the relationship of calories to nutrients. The more calories per gram of weight a food has, the higher its DED. Whole foods, including vegetables, fruits, lean protein, and beans are considered low-DED foods because they provide a lot of nutrients using very few calories. Processed foods, like hamburgers and pizza, are considered high-DED foods because you need a larger amount to get necessary nutrients. Previous studies have shown that regular consumption of foods high in DED contributes to weight gain in adults.

In order to gain a better understanding of how DED alone relates to cancer risk, researchers used data on 90,000 postmenopausal women from the Women’s Health Initiative including their diet and any diagnosis of cancer. The team found that women who consumed a diet higher in DED were 10% more likely to develop an obesity-related cancer, independent of body mass index. In fact, the study revealed that the increased risk appeared limited to women who were of a normal weight at enrollment in the program.

 

“The demonstrated effect in normal-weight women in relation to risk for obesity-related cancers is novel and contrary to our hypothesis,” explained lead investigator Cynthia A. Thomson, PhD, RD, Professor of Health Promotion Sciences at the University of Arizona Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health in Tucson, AZ. “This finding suggests that weight management alone may not protect against obesity-related cancers should women favor a diet pattern indicative of high energy density.”

Although restricting energy dense foods may play a role in weight management, investigators found that weight gain was not solely responsible for the rise in cancer risk among normal weight women in the study. They hypothesize that the higher DED in normal-weight women may cause metabolic dysregulation that is independent of body weight, which is a variable known to increase cancer risk.

While further study is needed to understand how DED may play a role in cancer risk for other populations such as young people and men, this information may help persuade postmenopausal women to choose low DED foods, even if they are already at a healthy body mass index.

“Among normal-weight women, higher DED may be a contributing factor for obesity-related cancers,” concluded Dr. Thomson. “Importantly, DED is a modifiable risk factor. Nutrition interventions targeting energy density as well as other diet-related cancer preventive approaches are warranted to reduce cancer burden among postmenopausal women.”

Story Source:
Materials provided by Elsevier. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

Cynthia A. Thomson, Tracy E. Crane, David O. Garcia, Betsy C. Wertheim, Melanie Hingle, Linda Snetselaar, Mridul Datta, Thomas Rohan, Erin LeBlanc, Rowan T. Chlebowski, Lihong Qi. Association between Dietary Energy Density and Obesity-Associated Cancer: Results from the Women’s Health Initiative. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2017; DOI: 10.1016/j.jand.2017.06.010

source: www.sciencedaily.com    August 17, 2017


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These 5 Preventable Conditions Shorten Lives

More bad news for plus-sized Americans: Obesity is the leading cause of preventable life-years lost in the nation, a new study finds.

Obesity steals more years than diabetes, tobacco, high blood pressure and high cholesterol – the other top preventable health problems that cut Americans’ lives short, according to researchers who analyzed 2014 data.

“Modifiable behavioral risk factors pose a substantial mortality burden in the U.S.,” said study lead author Glen Taksler, an internal medicine researcher at the Cleveland Clinic.

“These preliminary results continue to highlight the importance of weight loss, diabetes management and healthy eating in the U.S. population,” Taksler said in a clinic news release.

Obesity was linked with as much as 47 percent more life-years lost than tobacco, his team said.

Tobacco, meanwhile, had the same effect on life span as high blood pressure, the researchers found.

The researchers noted that three of the top five causes of life-years lost – diabetes, high blood pressure and high cholesterol – can be treated. And helping patients understand treatment methods, options and approaches can have a significant effect, the study authors said.

The findings also emphasize the importance of preventive care, and why it should be a priority for physicians, Taksler’s team said.

However, the researchers acknowledged that some people’s situations may be different than those of the general population. For example, for someone with obesity and alcoholism, drinking may be a more important risk factor than obesity, even though obesity is more significant in the general population.

“The reality is, while we may know the proximate cause of a patient’s death – for example, breast cancer or heart attack – we don’t always know the contributing factor(s), such as tobacco use, obesity, alcohol and family history,” Taksler said. “For each major cause of death, we identified a root cause to understand whether there was a way a person could have lived longer.”

The findings were scheduled for presentation Saturday at the annual meeting of the Society of General Internal Medicine, in Washington, D.C. Research presented at meetings should be considered preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed medical journal.

Obesity steals the most years of all, researchers say

By Robert Preidt     HealthDay Reporter     MONDAY, April 24, 2017
Sources: Cleveland Clinic, news release, April 22, 2017     WebMD News from HealthDay


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The Trendiest Diets Of 2017 And What Nutrition Experts Say About Them

It’s hard to cut through all the diet noise today.
Here, the experts weigh in on the trendiest diets of 2017 to determine what works and what doesn’t.

Canadians pay billions of dollars a year to the diet industry, with some estimates putting its revenue at $7 billion. And while names like Weight Watchers and Atkins have become immediately recognizable (and celebrated or vilified, depending on the results they’ve yielded), new diets pop up all the time with promises of offering life-long changes.

But how many of them are actually effective and sustainable?

“The problem today is that people are so concerned with losing weight quickly, they don’t care about sustaining it six months down the line,” says Abby Langer, registered dietitian and owner of Abby Langer Nutrition in Toronto. “They want to be able to do something today and wear a bikini tomorrow, but you want to make changes that will last for the rest of your life.”

There seems to be a careful formula needed to create hype behind diets today — and that includes a doctor’s seal of approval, celebrity endorsement and health claims backed by self-serving science.

At the end of the day, Langer says, finding a diet that will work is as personal as finding the right swimsuit. What might work for one may not work for another.

We’ve examined the six most popular diets today and asked the experts to weigh in on their claims and effectiveness.

#1 The Whole30

What it is: A diet that claims to “re-set” your body, and rid you of any food, skin or seasonal allergies by eliminating foods that cause inflammation and cravings. It’s a hardcore program that needs to be followed for 30 days with no interruptions. “Just a small amount of any of these inflammatory foods could break the healing cycle,” the website states. “One bite of pizza, one spoonful of ice cream, one lick of the spoon mixing the batter within the 30-day period and you’ve broken the ‘reset’ button, requiring you to start over again on Day 1.” Bonus: the diet strongly advises people against weighing themselves to measure progress.

What you eat: Moderate portions of meat, seafood, eggs, vegetables, some fruit, natural fats, herbs, spices and seasoning. (Coffee and tea allowed.)

What you eliminate: Real and added sugar, alcohol, grains, legumes, dairy and soy.

What the experts say: Langer calls this “basically a cleanse,” but says the rationale behind cutting out healthy foods like dairy and whole grains, is based on poorly done research, and its restrictions make it virtually impossible to follow if you follow a plant-based diet. In addition, it sends a problematic message.

“What’s very disturbing about it is the insulting and punitive way it treats people. The people who wrote the diet claim it ends your relationship with unhealthy food, but I think it will start a new unhealthy relationship with food. It’s unforgiving, and if you don’t follow it, you’ve failed,” she says.

#2 The Dukan Diet

What it is: Created by Dr. Pierre Dukan, a French neurologist and general practitioner, the diet consists of four phases that are meant to change your eating habits forever through a high protein, and low-fat and carbohydrate program. It boasts a list of 100 foods that are allowed on the diet and claims “no frustration and no starvation.” In phase one (“Attack” phase), you eat pure protein foods; phase two (“Cruise”) introduces non-starchy vegetables; phase three (“Consolidation”) gradually re-introduces starches; and phase four (“Stabilization”) allows all foods but requires consumption of three tablespoons of oat bran per day and one pure protein day per week.

What you eat: Lean meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, vegetarian proteins (soy, tempeh, tofu), fat-free dairy, eggs and vegetables. (Coffee, tea, unsweetened drinks and no more than one can of diet soda is allowed. No alcohol.)

What you eliminate: At the beginning, you only eat pure protein and other foods are re-introduced slowly throughout the phases. Oat bran is required every day through the entire program to boost fibre intake.

What the experts say: Thrust into the spotlight after it was revealed that Kate and Pippa Middleton followed this diet leading up to the Duchess’s wedding (“it got popular thanks to Pippa’s butt,” Langer quips), the experts once again take issue with Dukan’s restrictiveness.

“To be balanced and healthy it needs to have more focus on plant-based foods,” says Andrea Hardy, a registered dietitian in Calgary and owner of Ignite Nutrition. “Eating all that meat means you’re missing an opportunity to get phytochemicals, antioxidants and nutrients from fruits and vegetables.”

She also points out that the absence of fibre means you’ll lack healthy gut bacteria, which can lead to long-term health problems like anemia, high cholesterol and osteoporosis.

#3  The Paleo Diet

What it is: Created to mimic the way our ancestors ate (like in the Paleolithic period), this diet claims to lead to weight loss, optimize health and minimize the risk of chronic disease. This is another high protein, low carb diet that emphasizes non-starchy fruits and vegetables that won’t spike your blood sugar, and promotes moderate to high consumption of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. It especially vilifies whole grains and dispels the notion that they are a rich source of fibre. In other words, if the hunter-gatherers before us didn’t eat it, neither should you — with the exception of the three non-Paleo meals per week that you’re allotted. (That’s when you can have wine.)

What you eat: Meat, poultry, fish, (non-starchy) fresh fruits and vegetables, eggs, nuts and seeds, and healthy oils. (Moderate amounts of green tea allowed.)

What you eliminate: Grains, legumes, dairy, refined sugar, potatoes, processed food, salt and refined vegetable oils, coffee.

What the experts say: Ultimately, Paleo is a sustainable diet for some people and is especially attractive to meat lovers. But, Hardy warns, a lot of people do Paleo wrong and fail to round out their protein-heavy meals with fruit and vegetables. In addition, its highly restrictive nature could end up driving people to consume unhealthy grains for a “cheat meal” which in turn muddies the relationship with healthy carbs.

“If it’s too restrictive, people will end up feeling like they’ve ‘fallen off the wagon’ when they consume grains, and will, therefore, gravitate to something unhealthy like a doughnut because they’re ‘cheating,’ instead of choosing a wholesome grain product,” she says.

#4 The Mediterranean Diet

What it is: This predominantly plant-based diet draws from the traditional foods consumed by Mediterranean dwellers (like Italians, French and Greeks). It has been shown to reduce the risk of heart disease and lower cholesterol, and is associated with reduced incidences of cancer, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. It promotes healthy fats as well as lots of fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains, some fish and very little red meat.

What you eat: Vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds, legumes, potatoes, whole grains, breads, herbs, spices, fish, seafood and extra virgin olive oil. Poultry, eggs, cheese and yogurt should be eaten in moderation, and red meat should be eaten rarely. (Wine, coffee and tea are allowed.)

What you eliminate: Added sugar, refined grains, trans fats, processed meats, refined oils, highly processed foods.

What the experts say: This diet scored top marks for being sustainable, healthy, and well-researched to prove it lowers cholesterol and has anti-inflammatory effects.

“The idea is that you’re eating less animal protein, and less protein in general,” says Jessica Begg, registered dietitian and owner of Shift Nutrition in Calgary. “The protein powder industry has put so much emphasis on protein and we’re eating too much of it.”
She lauds the Mediterranean diet for focusing on sources of healthy fats and for not being restrictive.
“You’re not going to find a hack on Pinterest for a ‘Mediterranean chocolate cake,’ because it pushes a healthy balance of whole foods and allows almost everything,” Hardy says.

She says it’s not necessary to completely adopt it, either. People can slowly incorporate elements of the Mediterranean diet into their lives, like swapping out peanut oil for olive oil and eating pulses once a week, and they’ll still reap some benefits.

#5 The Alkaline Diet

What it is: The premise of this diet is that it will neutralize and balance the body’s natural pH by eliminating acidity. Our kidneys are responsible for maintaining our electrolyte levels, but chronic exposure to an acidic environment will cause those levels to deplete and result in acidosis. This acidity “robs” essential minerals from our bones, cells, organs and tissues, and accelerates the aging process, leads to a gradual loss of organ functions, and degenerates tissue and bone mass. By eating alkaline foods (like fresh fruits and vegetables, and unprocessed plant-based protein) you’ll stave off chronic health issues like diabetes, hypertension, arthritis and low bone density. It also pushes organic foods because research says the type of soil plants and vegetables grow in can influence their vitamin and mineral content.

What you eat: Fresh fruits and vegetables (preferably organic and raw), plant proteins (including soy and tofu), limited quantities of meat (preferably organic), alkaline water, green drinks made from green vegetables and grasses, and some dairy (like probiotic yogurt and kefir).

What you eliminate: Processed foods, processed cereals, eggs, lentils, fish, oats and whole wheat products, milk, peanuts and walnuts, pasta, rice, bread, alcohol, caffeine.

What the experts say: This one is plain bunk, experts say.

“There’s absolutely no evidence to support that this is a thing,” Begg says. “The premise is that you’re trying to maintain an alkaline system but our pH levels are tightly controlled by our bodies.”
Langer echoes her sentiments and calls this diet “a mockery of basic physiology.”
“This diet claims that cancer grows in an acidic environment, but in actuality, cancer creates the acidic environment,” she says, therefore the research has it backwards.
Hardy agrees that there’s no scientific evidence to back up the diet’s claims of alkalinity — “your kidneys and lungs act as a buffer for you and help maintain your pH regardless of what you eat” — but appreciates its focus on fresh fruits and vegetables.

#6 Intermittent Fasting

What it is: The concept of this diet is to “feast” and then fast for an extended period of time. Its roots date back to the 1930s, when researchers were trying to determine the benefits of reducing calorie intake by skipping meals. During that time, a scientist noticed that significantly reducing calorie intake helped mice live longer. Since then, more studies were conducted (on monkeys, fruit flies and roundworms) and in all cases, a reduced calorie diet was linked to longevity and lowered risk of common diseases. It is credited with burning fat, since during the extended fasted phases, your body doesn’t have food to burn for energy so it will naturally burn your stores of fat. As a result, it will promote weight loss and build muscle.

What you eat: It’s not what you eat, but how you eat. The 16/8 method involves fasting for 16 hours and eating all your calories within an eight-hour window. The 5:2 plan involves eating normally for five days and consuming no more than 600 calories for two days. Eat-Stop-Eat involves fasting for 24 hours once or twice a week; alternate day fasting requires you to fast every other day, although some plans allow 500 calories on fasting days; the “Warrior” diet involves eating a small amount of raw fruits and vegetables during the day and a large meal at night; and spontaneous meal skipping allows you to decide which meals to skip and when. In all cases, it is recommended to eat a healthy, balanced diet of whole foods, and to avoid processed and junk foods as they aren’t filling.

What you eliminate: Food.

What the experts say: This diet sounds rigorous and outlandish, but it has “good scientific evidence” to back it up, Hardy says. The main issue is eating the right things during the “feasting” phase.

“I’ve had clients do this and end up gaining weight because they eat whatever they want within that time frame without honouring their hunger and fullness,” she says.

The other concern is that it could trigger an already tenuous relationship with the way a person eats.

“Emotionally it can be very triggering for a person who struggles with an eating disorder because it promotes starving and bingeing,” Langer says.

She says it could be beneficial for anyone who has “lost their hunger cues” due to over-dieting (this can happen to people who diet all the time and are accustomed to always being hungry) because it’ll become very clear what real hunger feels like.

“But if you aren’t able to control yourself when it’s time to eat because you’re so hungry, that’s a problem.”

By Marilisa Racco  National Online Journalist, Smart Living  Global News