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This Nutrient Balance Reverses Brain Aging

The right balance between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids may help promote healthy cognitive aging, new research finds.

While we are used to hearing about the benefits of the fatty acids in fish and fish oils, that is only half the story.

Omega-6 fatty acids can come from nuts, seeds and other oils.

Typically, Western diets have too much omega-6 and not enough omega-3.

Together, a balance of these fatty acids may help to reduce age-related decline and maintain the integrity of cortical structures.

Ms Marta Zamroziewicz, who led the research, said:

“We studied a primary network of the brain — the frontoparietal network — that plays an important role in fluid intelligence and also declines early, even in healthy aging.
In a separate study, we examined the white matter structure of the fornix, a group of nerve fibers at the center of the brain that is important for memory.”

The researchers examined the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in adults aged 65 to 75, along with their brain structure.

The best balance of fatty acids for brain health.

Ms Zamroziewicz explained that it takes more than just fish and fish oils to keep the brain healthy with age:

“A lot of research tells us that people need to be eating fish and fish oil to get neuroprotective effects from these particular fats, but this new finding suggests that even the fats that we get from nuts, seeds and oils can also make a difference in the brain.”

A second study found a link between a balanced amount of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and greater memory preservation in older adults.

Ms Zamroziewicz explained:

“These findings have important implications for the Western diet, which tends to be misbalanced with high amounts of omega-6 fatty acids and low amounts of omega-3 fatty acids.”

Professor Aron Barbey, who co-authored the study, said:

“These two studies highlight the importance of investigating the effects of groups of nutrients together, rather than focusing on one at a time.
They suggest that different patterns of polyunsaturated fats promote specific aspects of cognition by strengthening the underlying neural circuits that are vulnerable to disease and age-related decline.”

The study was published in the journal Nutritional Neuroscience (Zamroziewicz et al., 2017).

source: PsyBlog
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If You’re Looking For A Healthy Heart, Go Nuts!

Eating 28 g of peanuts or tree nuts at least twice a week reduced the risk of heart attack or stroke by 15 per cent and 23 per cent, respectively

If you’re looking for foods to keep your heart in tip-top shape, add nuts to your smart-snacking list.

According to a new study from Harvard University and Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, eating nuts regularly can help prevent heart attack and stroke, and lower the odds of dying from cardiovascular disease.

What’s more, it seems that some types of nuts deliver stronger heart benefits than others.

For the study, researchers followed 289,000 healthy men and women for up to 32 years. They analyzed participants’ diets every two years and reviewed medical records for a diagnosis of heart attack or stroke and identified cardiovascular deaths.

Compared with people who never or almost never ate nuts (any type of nut, including peanuts), participants who ate one serving (28 g) at least five times a week were 20 per cent less likely to suffer a heart attack or stroke, either fatal or nonfatal. (Peanuts are classified as legumes, not tree nuts.)

After analyzing specific types of nuts, it was found that eating 28 g of peanuts or tree nuts at least twice a week reduced the risk of heart attack or stroke by 15 per cent and 23 per cent, respectively. (Tree nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pistachios and walnuts).

Walnuts, though, delivered a stronger protective punch. Participants who ate a 28 g serving just once a week had a 21 per cent lower risk of coronary heart disease. When stroke risk was considered separately, only walnuts and peanuts were found to offer significant protection.

This research was observational (e.g., it followed the habits of participants over years and associated them with health outcomes), so it doesn’t prove that eating nuts prevented heart attack or stroke.

However, a recent randomized trial – the gold standard for establishing cause and effect – revealed that a Mediterranean diet supplemented with 30 g of nuts lowered the risk of heart attack, stroke or death from cardiovascular disease by 30 per cent.

How nuts protect your heart
Nuts are high in heart-healthy unsaturated fats, plant protein, fibre and many nutrients (e.g., B vitamins, vitamin E, potassium, magnesium) and phytochemicals believed to benefit the heart.

A regular intake of nuts has been shown to lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and blood pressure, dampen inflammation, enhance blood vessel function and improve how the body uses insulin.

Nuts also contain flavonoids, phytochemicals that are metabolized by gut bacteria and, in so doing, may contribute cardiovascular benefits.

 



What about the calories?
Nuts are high in calories, mostly from fat. Yet, there’s no scientific evidence that eating nuts on a regular basis causes weight gain.

Rather, studies suggest that nut eaters experience less weight gain and have a lower risk of obesity than people who don’t eat them, likely because eating them increases satiety.

Even so, I don’t recommend you eat more than a small handful or two each day.

One cup of peanuts, for instance, delivers 857 calories, half a day’s worth for some people.

Limit your serving of raw or dry roasted nuts to 28 grams (one ounce).

Notable nutrients in nuts (per 28 g serving)

Almonds. Per 28 g (22 nuts): 170 calories, 6 g protein, 15 g fat, 3 g fibre

Notable: 7 mg vitamin E, nearly half a day’s worth for adults

Brazil nuts. Per 28 g (6 nuts): 187 calories, 4 g protein, 19 g fat, 2 g fibre

Notable: 107 mg magnesium (25 per cent of a day’s worth) and nearly 10 times the daily requirement for selenium, needed for antioxidant protection and thyroid function

Cashews. Per 28 g (18 nuts): 163 calories, 4 g protein, 13 g fat, 1 g fibre

Notable: 74 mg magnesium (adults need 400 mg a day)

Hazelnuts: Per 28 g (18 nuts): 183 calories, 4 g protein, 18 g fat, 3 g fibre

Notable: 4.3 mg vitamin E (adults need 15 mg a day)

Peanuts. Per 28 g (28 nuts): 166 calories, 7 g protein, 14 g fat, 2.4 g fibre

Notable: 4 mg niacin (one-quarter of a day’s worth); resveratrol, a phytochemical thought to contribute to longevity

Pecans: Per 28 g (20 halves): 201 calories, 2.7 g protein, 21 g fat, 4 g fibre

Notable: 6.7 mg gamma tocopherol, an anti-inflammatory form of vitamin E thought to protect against heart disease and prostate cancer

Pistachios. Per 28 g (49 nuts): 162 calories, 6 g protein, 13 g fat, 2 g fibre

Notable: 6.6 mg gamma tocopherol

Walnuts: Per 28 g (14 halves): 185 calories, 4.3 g protein, 18. 5 g fat, 2 g fibre

Notable: 2.6 g alpha linolenic acid (ALA), a plant omega-3 fat; women need 1.1 g a day and men require 1.6 g. (Walnuts are the only nut that contains ALA.)

LESLIE BECK   NOVEMBER 26, 2017
FOLLOW LESLIE BECK ON TWITTER @LESLIEBECKRD


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The Type of Nuts That Boost Brainwaves

How to strengthen brainwaves related to cognition, learning, memory and even healing.

Eating nuts regularly strengthens brainwaves related to cognition, learning, memory and even healing, new research finds.

Pistachios were particularly good at boosting the brain’s gamma wave response.

Gamma waves are critical for faster cognitive process, learning, memory and even sleep.

Peanuts, meanwhile, enhanced the brain’s delta response.

The delta response is important for deep sleep, healing and healthy immunity.

Because of their antioxidant content, nuts have already been shown to benefit the heart, reduce inflammation and slow the aging process.

Dr Lee Berk, the study’s first author, said:

“This study provides significant beneficial findings by demonstrating that nuts are as good for your brain as they are for the rest of your body.”

For the research, different people ate six different types of nuts: walnuts, pecans, pistachios, peanuts, cashews and almonds.

Their brain waves were measured using EEG recordings.

All the different types of nuts contain antioxidants, with walnuts containing the highest levels.

The study’s authors write:

“Nuts are a major source of flavonoids.
They are potent antioxidants with known mechanisms that provide cardioprotective, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties.
Studies have shown that absorbed flavonoids penetrate and accumulate in brain hippocampal regions involved in learning and memory.”

The study was presented at Experimental Biology 2017  (Berk et al., 2017).

source: PsyBlog


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High Carb – Not Fat – Intake Linked To Greater Early Death Risk: Study

A large Canadian study is challenging conventional wisdom that says a low-fat diet is optimal for cardiovascular health and reduces the risk of premature death.

The McMaster University study of more than 135,000 people in 18 countries found that eating a moderate amount of all types of fat is linked to a reduced risk of early mortality compared to the much-touted low-fat diet — while consuming a high-carbohydrate diet is associated with an increased risk of dying early.

“Contrary to popular belief, increased consumption of dietary fats is associated with a lower risk of death,” said lead author Mahshid Dehghan, a nutrition epidemiologist at the Hamilton university’s Population Health and Research Institute.

“Those with a high-fat intake, about 30 per cent of energy intake, had a 23 per cent lower risk of mortality and an 18 per cent lower risk of stroke, compared to the low-intake group, which had 11 per cent energy from fat,” Dehghan said from Barcelona, where she presented the findings Tuesday to the European Society of Cardiology Congress.

“The association with lower mortality was also seen with all major types of fat, by which I mean saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.”

Saturated fat is found in meat and dairy products, while monounsaturated fat is contained in nuts, avocados, and vegetable and olive oils. Polyunsaturated fat is found in walnuts, sunflower and flax seeds, fish, corn, soybean and safflower oils.

Current global guidelines recommend that 50 to 65 per cent of daily calories come from carbohydrates, and less than 10 per cent from saturated fats. But Dehghan said that advice is mostly based on evidence from studies in North America and Europe.

Cardiovascular disease is a global epidemic, with 80 per cent of the burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries. Diet is a key modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, experts say.

Dehghan said the healthiest diet would be made up of 50 to 55 per cent carbohydrates and 35 per cent total fat, including both saturated and unsaturated types.

“We found no evidence that below 10 per cent of energy from saturated fat is beneficial — and going below seven per cent is even harmful,” she said, adding that a diet containing 10 to 13 per cent of energy from saturated fat was found to be beneficial.

A diet that provides more than 60 per cent of energy from carbohydrates — one common among populations in China and South Asia — was associated with a 28 per cent higher risk of premature death, researchers found.

“The message of our study is moderation as opposed to very low or very high intake in consumption of both fats and carbohydrates.”
“We’re not advocating an extreme diet,” agreed co-author Andrew Mente. “We’re not saying that people should go on a low-carb, very high-fat diet because we didn’t find any benefit with a very low-carb diet either.

“There’s a sweet spot for carbohydrates, which is about 55 per cent of energy intake.”

The PURE (Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology) study was published Tuesday in The Lancet. In a linked commentary in the journal, Drs. Christopher Ramsden and Anthony Domenichiello of the U.S. National Institute on Aging called the research “an impressive undertaking that will contribute to public health for years to come.”
“The relationships between diet, cardiovascular disease and death are topics of major public health importance…. Initial PURE findings challenge conventional diet-disease tenets that are largely based on observational associations in European and North American populations, adding to the uncertainty about what constitutes a healthy diet. This uncertainty is likely to prevail until well-designed randomized controlled trials are done.”

Mente, also a nutrition epidemiologist at the Population Health and Research Institute, was lead author of a second analysis from the PURE study presented Tuesday at the cardiology meeting.

That paper — one of three from PURE published in The Lancet — found that eating three to four servings of fruit, vegetables and legumes per day reduces the risk of premature death.

“And consuming higher amounts, pretty much you have the same level of risk,” Mente said from Barcelona. “There’s no added benefit with consuming more than four servings.
“This is important because existing guidelines recommend that people consume at least five servings per day, which is less affordable in the poorer countries because fruits and vegetables — particularly fruits — are more expensive as a proportion of people’s incomes.”

Lower-income Canadians may also be unable to afford the five to 10 daily servings of fruits and vegetables recommended in the country’s Food Guide.

“So what our study shows is you can achieve maximum benefit through fruits and vegetables and legumes, and it’s also affordable at the same time.”

Mente said the study also showed raw vegetables appear to confer greater health benefits than those that are cooked because of a loss of nutrients from being exposed to heat.

With the federal government in the process of revamping Canada’s Food Guide, the research could be a timely addition to consultations on what Canadians should be eating, Mente suggested.

“We would hope that independent thinkers perhaps reconsider the guidelines and look at our data, and perhaps rather than putting limits on total fat and saturated fat, perhaps we should be putting limits on the amount of carbohydrates that people consume.”

SHERYL UBELACKER     TORONTO    THE CANADIAN PRESS    AUGUST 29, 2017


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Depression: This Tiny Change to Diet Has Protective Effect

This small change to your diet could be enough to reduce the risk of depression.

A Mediterranean diet including fruits, vegetables and legumes can prevent depression, a large new study finds.

People only had to make relatively small changes to see the benefits.

The scientist think that depression could be partly down to a lack of essential nutrients.

The study included 15,093 people who were followed over 10 years.

People who reported eating more nuts, fruits and vegetables were considered to be following the Mediterranean diet more closely.

Those who ate more meats and sweets were considered to be moving away from the healthy diet.

The benefits of the diet are likely related to higher levels of omega 3 and other essential nutrients.

Dr Almudena Sanchez-Villegas, who led the research, said:

“We wanted to understand what role nutrition plays in mental health, as we believe certain dietary patterns could protect our minds.
These diets are all associated with physical health benefits and now we find that they could have a positive effect on our mental health.
The protective role is ascribed to their nutritional properties, where nuts, legumes, fruits and vegetables (sources of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins and minerals) could reduce the risk of depression.”

Relatively small dietary changes were enough to reduce depression risk, Dr Sanchez-Villegas explained:

“A threshold effect may exist.
The noticeable difference occurs when participants start to follow a healthier diet.
Even a moderate adherence to these healthy dietary patterns was associated with an important reduction in the risk of developing depression.
However, we saw no extra benefit when participants showed high or very high adherence to the diets.
So, once the threshold is achieved, the reduced risk plateaus even if participants were stricter with their diets and eating more healthily.
This dose-response pattern is compatible with the hypothesis that suboptimal intake of some nutrients (mainly located in low adherence levels) may represent a risk factor for future depression.”

The research was published in the journal BMC Medicine (Sánchez-Villegas et al., 2015).
source: PsyBlog


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Certain Nuts Linked to Reduced Risk of Colon Cancer Return: Study

Nut-eaters saw a 42 percent lower chance of cancer recurrence – and a 57 percent lower chance of death than patients who did not eat nuts after completion of their cancer treatment, said the report.

Eating certain kinds of tree nuts, such as almonds, pecans, walnuts, hazelnuts and cashews, has been linked to a dramatically lower risk of colon cancer recurrence, researchers said Wednesday.

The observational study involved 826 patients who had undergone treatment for Stage III colon cancer, typically including surgery and chemotherapy. Such patients – whose cancer has not spread elsewhere in the body – have a 70 per cent chance of surviving three years after treatment.

Some 19 per cent of patients consumed two or more ounces of all types of nuts per week.

These nut-eaters saw a 42 per cent lower chance of cancer recurrence – and a 57 per cent lower chance of death than patients who did not eat nuts after completion of their cancer treatment, said the report, released ahead of the American Society for Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting, held in Chicago next month.

When researchers looked only at tree nut consumption, the chance of recurrence was 46 per cent lower and the chance of death was 53 per cent lower for those who ate at least two ounces per week, compared to people who did not eat nuts.

Peanuts and peanut butter – the most commonly consumed nuts in the United States – did not appear to have any significant effect.

“Numerous studies in the fields of heart disease and diabetes have shown the benefits of nut consumption, and we felt that it was important to determine if these benefits could also apply to colorectal cancer patients,” said lead study author Temidayo Fadelu, a clinical fellow in medicine at Dana Farber Cancer Institute.

“Patients with advanced disease who benefit from chemotherapy frequently ask what else they can do to reduce their chances of recurrence or death, and our study is an important contribution to the idea that modifying diet and physical activity can be beneficial.”

Eating nuts should not be considered a substitute for standard chemotherapy and other treatments for colon cancer, experts said.

“Rather, patients with colon cancer should be optimistic, and they should eat a healthy diet, including tree nuts, which may not only keep them healthier, but may also further decrease the chances of the cancer coming back,” said ASCO president Daniel Hayes.

Researchers cautioned that the study was observational nature and did not prove cause and effect.

A separate study discussed Wednesday ahead of the Chicago cancer conference involved 992 people whose colon cancer had not spread. It showed that following a Mediterranean diet and exercising reduced their risk of dying prematurely by 42 per cent and also cut their chances of seeing their colon cancer return.

Thursday, May 18, 2017 


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How To Beat Major Depression With The Right Diet

World-first study reveals how diet can treat major depression.

Improving dietary quality successfully treats major depression, a large new study finds.

The three-month study recruited people with major depressive disorder.

One group were given support from a clinical dietitian.

A control group were given access to social support, which is also beneficial for depression.

Those in the dietary group saw great improvements in depressive symptoms.

At the end of the study one-third of people who had changed their diet were in remission from depression.

This compared to only 8% in the social support group.

Professor Felice Jacka, the study’s first author, said:

“We’ve known for some time that there is a clear association between the quality of people’s diets and their risk for depression.
This is the case across countries, cultures and age groups, with healthy diets associated with reduced risk, and unhealthy diets associated with increased risk for depression.
However, this is the first randomised controlled trial to directly test whether improving diet quality can actually treat clinical depression.”

diet

The dietitian encouraged people to eat more of the following food types:

  • vegetables,
  • fruits,
  • whole grains,
  • legumes,
  • fish,
  • lean red meats,
  • olive oil,
  • and nuts.

At the same time people were discouraged from eating:

  • sweets,
  • refined cereals,
  • fried food,
  • fast-food,
  • processed meats,
  • and sugary drinks.

Professor Jacka continued:

“These results were not explained by changes in physical activity or body weight, but were closely related to the extent of dietary change.
Those who adhered more closely to the dietary program experienced the greatest benefit to their depression symptoms.”

The study suggests that dietitians should be made available to those being treated for depression.

Professor Jacka said:

“Mental disorders account for the leading cause of disability worldwide, with depression accounting for the large proportion of that burden.
While approximately half of sufferers are helped by currently available medical and psychological therapies, new treatment options for depression are urgently needed.
Importantly, depression also increases the risk of and, in turn, is also increased by common physical illnesses such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
Successfully improving the quality of patients’ diets would also benefit these illnesses.”

The study was published in the journal BMC Medicine (Jacka et al., 2017).

FEBRUARY 15, 2017                source: PsyBlog